When convicted, they paid fines and submitted to jail time. To help their husbands avoid prosecution, plural wives often separated into different households or went into hiding under assumed names, particularly when pregnant or after giving birth. 25 by 1890, when President woodruffs Manifesto lifted the command to practice plural marriage, mormon society had developed a strong, loyal core of members, mostly made up of emigrants from Europe and the eastern United States. But the demographic makeup of the worldwide Church membership had begun to change. Beginning in the 1890s converts outside the United States were asked to build up the Church in their homelands rather than move to Utah. In subsequent decades, latter-day saints migrated away from the Great Basin to pursue new opportunities.
The Apology Plato Essay - 698 Words bartleby
In fact, it appears that a larger percentage of men in Utah married than elsewhere in the United States at the time. Probably half of those living in Utah Territory in 1857 experienced life in a polygamous family as a husband, wife, or child at some time during their lives. 21 by 1870, 25 to 30 percent of the population lived in polygamous households, and it appears that the percentage continued to decrease over the next 20 years. 22 The experience of plural marriage toward the end of the 19th century was substantially different from that of earlier decades. Beginning in 1862, the. Government passed laws against phrases the practice of plural marriage. Outside opponents mounted a campaign against the practice, stating that they hoped med to protect Mormon women and American civilization. For their part, many latter-day saint women publicly defended the practice of plural marriage, arguing in statements that they were willing participants. 23 After the. Supreme court found the anti-polygamy laws to be constitutional in 1879, federal officials began prosecuting polygamous husbands and wives during the 1880s. 24 Believing these laws to be unjust, latter-day saints engaged in civil disobedience by continuing to practice plural marriage and by attempting to avoid arrest.
Where the family lived—whether in Salt lake city, with its multiple social and cultural opportunities, or the rural hinterlands, where such opportunities were fewer in number—made a difference in how plural marriage was experienced. It is therefore difficult to accurately generalize about the experience of all plural marriages. Still, some patterns are discernible, and they correct some myths. Although some leaders had large polygamous families, two-thirds of polygamist men had only two wives at a time. 18 Church leaders recognized that plural marriages could be particularly difficult for women. Divorce was therefore available to women who brief were unhappy in their marriages; remarriage was also readily available. 19 Women did marry at fairly young ages in the first decade of Utah settlement (age 16 or 17 or, infrequently, younger which was typical of women living in frontier areas at the time. 20 As in other places, women married at older ages as the society matured. Almost all women married, and so did a large percentage of men.
13 Not all, however, were expected to live. Indeed, this system of marriage could not have been universal due to the fruit ratio of men to women. 14 Church leaders viewed plural marriage as a command to the Church generally, while recognizing that individuals who did not enter the practice could still stand approved of God. 15 Women were free to choose their spouses, whether to enter into a polygamous or monogamous union, or whether to marry at all. 16 Some men entered plural marriage because they were asked to do so by Church leaders, while others initiated the process themselves; all were required to obtain the approval of Church leaders before entering a plural marriage. 17 The passage of time shaped the experience of life within plural marriage. Virtually all of those practicing it in the earliest years had to overcome their own prejudice against plural marriage and adjust to life in polygamous families. The task of pioneering a semiarid land during the middle decades of the 19th century added to the challenges of families who were learning to practice the principle of plural marriage.
8, plural marriage also helped create and strengthen a sense of cohesion and group identification among Latter-day saints. Church members came to see themselves as a peculiar people, 9 covenant -bound to carry out the commands of God despite outside opposition, willing to endure ostracism for their principles. 10, for these early latter-day saints, plural marriage was a religious principle that required personal sacrifice. Accounts left by men and women who practiced plural marriage attest to the challenges and difficulties they experienced, such as financial difficulty, interpersonal strife, and some wives longing for the sustained companionship of their husbands. 11, but accounts also record the love and joy many found within their families. They believed it was a commandment of God at that time and that obedience would bring great blessings to them and their posterity, both on earth and in the life to come. While there was much love, tenderness, and affection within many plural marriages, the practice was generally based more on religious belief than on romantic love. 12 Church leaders taught that participants in plural marriages should seek to develop a generous spirit of unselfishness and the pure love of Christ for everyone involved. During the years that plural marriage was publicly taught, all Latter-day saints were expected to accept the principle as a revelation from God.
Apology Essay - 519 Words
Law forbidding plural marriage and to use his influence to convince members of the Church to do likewise. 3, after the manifesto, monogamy was advocated in the Church both over the pulpit and through the press. On an exceptional basis, some new plural marriages were performed between 18, especially in Mexico and Canada, outside the jurisdiction. Law; a features small number of plural marriages were performed within the United States during those years. 4, in 1904, the Church strictly writing prohibited new plural marriages. 5, today, any person who practices plural marriage cannot become or remain a member of the Church. This essay primarily addresses plural marriage as practiced by the latter-day saints between 18, following their exodus to the.
West and before the manifesto. Latter-day saints do not understand all of Gods purposes for instituting, through His prophets, the practice of plural marriage during the 19th century. The book of Mormon identifies one reason for God to command it: to increase the number of children born in the gospel covenant in order to raise up seed unto the lord (. Plural marriage did result in the birth of large numbers of children within faithful Latter-day saint homes. 6, it also shaped 19th-century mormon society in other ways: marriage became available to virtually all who desired it; per-capita inequality of wealth was diminished as economically disadvantaged women married into more financially stable households; 7 and ethnic intermarriages were increased, which helped to unite.
See time's Pictures of the week. See the cartoons of the week. Time responds: we sincerely regret that any of our readers were upset by this humor column of joel Stein's. It was in no way intended to cause offense. Joel Stein responds: I truly feel stomach-sick that I hurt so many people.
I was trying to explain how, as someone who believes that immigration has enriched American life and my hometown in particular, i was shocked that I could feel a tiny bit uncomfortable with my changing town when I went to visit. If we could understand that reaction, we'd be better equipped to debate people on the other side of the immigration issue. The, bible and the, book of Mormon teach that the marriage of one man to one woman is Gods standard, except at specific periods when he has declared otherwise. 1, in accordance with a revelation to, joseph Smith, the practice of plural marriage—the marriage of one man to two or more women—was instituted among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints in the early 1840s. Thereafter, for more than half a century, plural marriage was practiced by some. Only the Church President held the keys authorizing the performance of new plural marriages. 2, in 1890, the lord inspired Church President Wilford woodruff to issue a statement that led to the end of the practice of plural marriage in the Church. In this statement, known as the. Manifesto, president woodruff declared his intention to abide.
Critical Analysis of The Apology of Socrates by Plato Essay example
We left it at that. Unlike previous waves of immigrants, who couldn't fly home or skype with relatives, Edison's first Indian generation didn't quickly assimilate (and give their kids Western names). But if you look at the about current Facebook photos of students at my old high school,. Stevens, which would be very creepy of you, you'll see that, while the population seems at least half Indian, a lot of them look like the Italian guidos I grew up with in the 1980s: gold chains, gelled hair, unbuttoned shirts. In fact, they are called guindians. Their assimilation is so wonderfully American that if the Statue of Liberty could shed a tear, she would. Because of the amount of cologne they wear.
Unlike some of my friends in the 1980s, i liked a lot of things about the way my town changed: far better restaurants, friends dorky enough to play dungeons dragons with me, restaurant owners who didn't card us because all white people look old. But sometime after I left, the town became a maze of charmless Indian strip malls and housing developments. Whenever I go back, i feel what people in Arizona talk about: a sense of loss and anomie and disbelief that anyone can eat food that spicy. To figure out why it bothered me so much, i talked to a friend of mine from high school, jun Choi, who just finished a term as mayor of Edison. Choi said that part of what I don't like about the new Edison is the reduction of wealth, which probably would have been worse without the arrival of so many Indians, many of whom, fittingly for a town called Edison, are inventors and engineers. And no place is immune to change. In the 11 years I lived in Manhattan's Chelsea district, that area transformed from a place with gangs and hookers to a place with gays and transvestite hookers to a place with artists and no hookers to a place with rich families and, i'm guessing. As Choi pointed out, i was a participant in at least one of those changes.
going over to Asia to kill them. After the law passed, when I was a kid, a few engineers and doctors from Gujarat moved to Edison because of its proximity to at t, good schools and reasonably priced, if slightly deteriorating, postww ii housing. For a while, we assumed all Indians were geniuses. Then, in the 1980s, the doctors and engineers brought over their merchant cousins, and we were no longer so sure about the genius thing. In the 1990s, the not-as-brilliant merchants brought their even-less-bright cousins, and we started to understand why India is so damn poor. Eventually, there were enough Indians in Edison to change the culture. At which point my townsfolk started calling the new Edisonians "dot heads." One kid i knew in high school drove down an Indian-dense street yelling for its residents to "go home to India." In retrospect, i question just how good our schools were if "dot. (see time's special report "The making of America: Thomas Edison.
The Italian restaurant that my friends stole cash from as waiters is now Moghul, one of the most famous Indian restaurants in the country. There is an entire friendship generation of white children in Edison who have nowhere to learn crime. (see pictures of Thomas Edison's Menlo park.). I never knew how a bunch of people half a world away chose a random town in New Jersey to populate. Were they from some Indian state that got made fun of by all the other Indian states and didn't want to give up that feeling? Are the malls in India that bad? Did we accidentally keep numbering our parkway exits all the way to mumbai?
The Apology of Socrates / Digital Essays / God and the good Life
Illustration by john Ueland for time. Statement Appended: July 2, 2010, i am very much in hibernation favor of immigration everywhere in the. The mostly white suburban town I left when I graduated from high school in 1989 the town that was called Menlo park when Thomas Alva edison set up shop there and was later renamed in his honor has become home to one of the biggest. S., as familiar to people in India as how to instruct stupid Americans to reboot their Internet routers. My town is totally unfamiliar. The pizza hut where my busboy friends stole pies for our drunken parties is now an Indian sweets shop with a completely inappropriate roof. The a p i shoplifted from is now an Indian grocery. The multiplex where we snuck into r-rated movies now shows only bollywood films and serves samosas.